Orthodontics is a specialty focusing on correction of both abnormally sequenced teeth and disharmony between lower and upper jaws. While only visible front teeth were corrected years ago, later on occlusion, relation of teeth with the counterjawand the jawbone has been started to be corrected. Today, correction of position of the jawbone in the face skeleton and even congenital anomalies such as cleft lip or cleft palate has been included in the specialty, along with the previous objects.
A dentist specialized in the field of orthodontics is called an “Orthodontist”. A doctor who received Doctorate or Specialization education is also called an “Orthodontist” in short generally. To obtain this title, it is required to complete a Specialization or Doctorate education which lasts for 4-6 years after being a dentist, and to submit a thesis and pass an exam.
Your dentist will provide you with general information with regards to whether an orthodontic treatment is required, but the most detailed and sufficient information will be provided by an Orthodontist in terms of details, duration and cost of the treatment according to operations to be carried out. Following a comprehensive interview and a detailed examination including many diagnosis methods such as your medical and dental history, oral and dental examination, creation of your jaw models and some special x-rays and photos at your first visit, it can be determined whether you require an orthodontic treatment or whether tooth extraction is required, and type and duration of the treatment can also be determined.
If one of the following conditions is available, then you may require orthodontic treatment:
- Overbite: Upper front teeth are located ahead of lower front teeth.
- Underbite: Lower front teeth are placed ahead compared to upper front teeth or upper teeth are placed behind compared to lower teeth.
- Crossbite: Lower and upper front teeth are overlapped when closed.
- Over Jet: Upper front teeth are ahead so as the mouth sometimes cannot be closed.
- Openbite: Lower and upper front teeth do not touch each other when closed.
- Midline shift: Midline of your upper front teeth do not coincide with the midline of your lower front teeth.
- Gaps: Gaps between teeth due to tooth extraction or for natural reasons.
- Crooked teeth: There is no sufficient place in the jaw for sequence of the teeth.
- Harmful habits: Habits such as thumbsucking, improper swallowing, tongue-pushing, pen-biting, and nail-eating that negatively affect tooth and jaw development.
Now Orthodontic treatment is applied to the youth and adults, as well as children.
Small pieces which are pasted on teeth and enable the force produced by braces to be transmitted to the teeth are called “brackets” in the orthodontics. While a wide range of types are manufactured depending on companies and techniques, generally metal or porcelain brackets are used in practice.
They can be colored using rubbers which are removed in each session if desired.
Porcelain brackets: They are preferred for young and adult patients who require their brackets are less visible, and for patients who do not require use of very heavy force.
Fitting of brackets:
Brackets are pasted on teeth and wires are passed through the brackets to apply force on the teeth. Thus, teeth are gradually moved by means of dentures changed, and it allows positioning the teeth properly. The treatment may continue a few months or a few years, and each month adjustments are made to enable improvement of the teeth to be as desired. Brackets used today are lighter and include less metal. They are manufactured in various shapes to motivate the children, and transparent for the adult.
Fixed applications include the following:
Special Fixed Applications:
Those apparatus produced to break the habit of thumb-sucking are affixed to the teeth using tapes. They are recommended to be used as the last option as they are not very comfortable during eating.
Fixed Space Maintainers:
In case baby teeth are lost earlier than normal, space maintainers are used to prevent the other teeth to slide towards the space until permanent teeth grow.
Removable Apparatus are:
Aligners (treatment without brackets):
Being an alternative to the fixed treatment carried out using brackets for the adult, it is preferred by many orthodontists to align the teeth as there is no bracket and denture. Aligners are generally transparent and removed to eat, brush teeth and use dental floss. Although they are demanded by the patient insistently in recent years, they may remain insufficient for severe Orthodontic deficiencies. Your Orthodontist will make the decision in this respect and provide you with the required information.
Removable Space Maintainers:
It has the same function as fixed space maintainers. It consists of a acrylic base fitted on the jaw and fills the space between specific teeth with a plastic or wires.
Apparatus developed to reposition the jaw:
That apparatus called “splint” is placed on lower or upper jaw and helps the jaw to be closed in a better position. It is also used to rectify temporomandibular joint disorder.
Lip and cheek bumpers:
An apparatus which pushes the teeth backwards and prevents lips and cheeks to come between the teeth. Lip and cheek muscles may apply force on the teeth and bumpers cut such force.
It is a screw apparatus which enables upper or lower jaw to be expanded. It is made of a special plastic material called acrylic and fitted on the palate. By virtue of the force applied by screws, jaw bones underneath the teeth and the palate grow and expand.
It is a passive apparatus used to maintain position of the teeth and prevent them to revert back after the treatment ends.
It is an apparatus attached to upper molar teeth with a tape and metal wire placed on back of the head (on nape or skull). Headgears slow down development of the upper jaw and enable front teeth to move backwards while keeping back teeth as is. They are usually worn during the evening and night.
Which treatment is applied when?
If relation to each other of the lower and upper jaw bones carrying the teeth is normal and the problem is on the teeth only, such abnormalities can be treated on each age. However, problems related to the jaw-face skeleton can be treated especially in growth and development periods. Orthodontists determined the stage of growth and development period of the patient by means of “cephalometric” or “hand-wrist” x-rays, because bone age and chronological age of the patient do not always correspond to each other. In case active growth and development of the patient have ended, severe skeletal problems can be treated by the combination of orthodontic and surgical treatment called “orognathic surgery”.
Objects of the Orthodontics
A. Protective Orthodontics: Primary duty of an orthodontist is to prevent formation of orthodontic anomaly in the children. Maintenance of places of baby teeth extracted in early ages is highly important for proper sequencing of the permanent teeth in future.
B. Suspensive Orthodontics: If formation of an anomaly in a child has not been prevented, the anomaly is stopped and its occurrence is prevented. It covers tooth extractions to stop bad habits (i.e. thumbsucking) and prevent future occurrence of crookedness.
C. Therapeutic Orthodontics: Covers the therapies performed after the formation of an orthodontic anomaly. Therapy planning must be made by an Orthodontist.
Orthodontic Treatment Targets
- To provide a good chewing, talking and breathing function;
- To provide good tooth, jaw and face aesthetics;
- To ensure permanency of the situation achieved as the result of the orthodontic treatment
the next step
The next step is to arrange a free private consultation with CTG DENTALCARE at London or Izmir. More simply you can get a quote by filling the detailed form on our website. We also be happy to chat with you on the phone and answer any questions that you might have.
We look forward to hearing from you.